The same was true for hinges used under a table leaf. While it is possible to get a blacksmith today to produce a handmade nail from wrought iron, the cost can be prohibitive and the blacksmith is not keen to devote his limited time to making such small products. They are easily identified by tapering only on the two rough, sheared sides with the front and back sides smooth and parallel from head to point. A nail cutting machine designed in the 1790s cut the nail's shank and reduced hand labor to only forming the head of the nail. Hand-hammered nails, dating from the 1700s or earlier, leave a square hole with an irregular impression at the top from a hammered head.
Note the flat spot on the shaft, the irregular threads, blunt tip and the off center slot. Mercer, contains photographs, drawings, and patent information on nails, hinges, screws, hardware, planing machines, etc. Wholesale replacement or nails mismatched to their original function are a warning sign of potential problems. This is still the most common type screw but now comes with a variety of different types of heads, including Phillips, square recess, clutch and Torx. This article originally appeared in Antique Trader magazine But the most obvious clue to the handwork is the thread. Nails have been around for millennia and aren't going anywhere soon. Flat metal strips of around two feet 600mm in length and the width slightly larger than the nail length was presented to the machine.
Within six years, more steel-wire nails were being produced than iron-cut nails. Ball, Ephraim 1886 The Hand-Made Nail Trade. With the resulting nails thus all oriented in the same direction, it became possible for the same machine to automatically grip each nail and form a head in a continuous mechanical operation. These cost about a couple pennies each and look like an old-fashioned fastener. Hazard of Kingstown, Rhode Island, 1778 to 1840 The Merrymount Press, Boston. In use, the rosehead is often the only part of the nail that is left visible and this shape of head is now considered vital when a period nail is demanded.
We've got the column and the head but what about the ramp, also known as the worm or the threads? This is not the first nail or spike to be found by the team, with an iron barrote nail turning up last season which was dated back to the late 16th century and were often used in the decks of Spanish galleons. The smith heated the square stock and then began the process of pounding out a round shaft. The first lever cut a triangular strip of metal giving the desired width of the nail, the second lever held the nail in place while the third lever formed the head. Once you've experienced the quality and performance of our vintage reproductions, they'll surely become your preferred choice for a variety of applications. These solid-steel nails are made from a slightly lighter gauge steel, ideal for fastening antique hinges or face-nailing floors.
Early forged nails salvaged from old pieces and modern reproductions shaped like early nails are easily obtained. Use a soft head hammer to prevent finish from chipping off the nail. The next three saws are bolt saws used by some mills to square both ends of a log before cutting boards. Riddick, Wallace Carl 1890 Experiments on Static and Dynamic Stresses in Nails. Are they wood studs in the wall or someting else? Thanks Chris you always provide great posts I know of another excellent smith, Jonathan Nedbor in Ulster County New York, who makes all types of period nails as well as historical hardware. Early American Industries Association Chronicle 12 2 :47-48.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. European cabinetmakers continued their hand-cut dovetails well into the 1900's. Cut nails leave a more rectangular hole and around or rectangular head. Alan Wood Steel Company 1939 Reading Cut Nails Product brochure, Conshohocken, Pa. Larrabee, Edward 1968 Machine Made Nails from a War of 1812 Site at Sackett's Harbor, New York.
The shank of a handmade screw does not taper. . By 1880, the use of cast iron in the making of butt hinges was discontinued in favor of stamped steel. Snow's System for Erecting Light Frame Buildings from Dimension Lumber and Machine-made Nails In The Technology of Historic American Buildings: Studies of the Materials, Craft Processes, and the Mechanization of Building Construction. Older case goods generally employ mortise and tenon joints, as do old chairs and doors. The Antique Nails industry had been born.
Handmade screws of the 18th century started out much as the handmade nails of the period did, as square iron nail stock produced in a rolling mill. National Park Service, Eastern Office of Design and Construction, Philadelphia. Most people would know that a handmade nail is likely to be older than a modern machine manufactured one, but what about reproductions and is there variation in the handmade ones over time? Brooklyn Wire Nail Company 1885 Illustrated Catalog Brooklyn Wire Nail Company, Brooklyn. This mid-century nail had a large, uniform, machine-made head and it became the standard nail for more than 50 years, and it continued to leave the characteristic rectangular hole. I can put a fairly good size log in it to hand peel and sand with no problem. The Rockler cut nail heads were too big but after some grinding that now look like the orginals.
Vanes, Benjamin 1841 A Treatise on the British Nail Trade in Which the Transactions of the Workmen and Masters are Thoroughly Considered, Also the Buying, Selling or Bargaining Between Manufacturers Factors, Iron-mongers, Merchants, etc. Cross sections of pre-1800 nails are generally square; shanks from 1800-1890 are rectangular; modern shanks are round. Iron ore and carbon heated together and then cooled created wrought iron, from which a nail length piece was cut and hammered on four sides to create a point. Then the nail maker would insert the hot nail into a hole in a nail header or anvil and form a head with several glancing blows of the hammer. The nails are normally made of mild steel and are often used without any further finish and can be clinched i.